Sum-and-difference monopulse for URA

Direction of Arrival (DOA)

`phaseddoalib`

The URA Sum-and-Difference Monopulse block estimates the direction of arrival of a narrowband signal on a uniform rectangular array (URA) based on an initial guess using a sum-and-difference monopulse algorithm. The block obtains the difference steering vector by phase-reversing the latter half of the sum steering vector.

**Signal Propagation speed (m/s)**Specify the propagation speed of the signal, in meters per second, as a positive scalar. You can use the function

`physconst`

to specify the speed of light.**Operating frequency (Hz)**Specify the operating frequency of the system, in hertz, as a positive scalar.

**Number of bits in phase shifters**The number of bits used to quantize the phase shift component of beamformer or steering vector weights. Specify the number of bits as a non-negative integer. A value of zero indicates that no quantization is performed.

**Simulate using**Block simulation method, specified as

`Interpreted Execution`

or`Code Generation`

. If you want your block to use the MATLAB^{®}interpreter, choose`Interpreted Execution`

. If you want your block to run as compiled code, choose`Code Generation`

. Compiled code requires time to compile but usually runs faster.Interpreted execution is useful when you are developing and tuning a model. The block runs the underlying System object™ in MATLAB. You can change and execute your model quickly. When you are satisfied with your results, you can then run the block using

`Code Generation`

. Long simulations run faster than they would in interpreted execution. You can run repeated executions without recompiling. However, if you change any block parameters, then the block automatically recompiles before execution.When setting this parameter, you must take into account the overall model simulation mode. The table shows how the

**Simulate using**parameter interacts with the overall simulation mode.When the Simulink

^{®}model is in`Accelerator`

mode, the block mode specified using**Simulate using**overrides the simulation mode.**Acceleration Modes**Block Simulation Simulation Behavior `Normal`

`Accelerator`

`Rapid Accelerator`

`Interpreted Execution`

The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. The block executes using the MATLAB interpreter. Creates a standalone executable from the model. `Code Generation`

The block is compiled. All blocks in the model are compiled. For more information, see Choosing a Simulation Mode (Simulink).

**Specify sensor array as**Specify a ULA sensor array directly or by using a MATLAB expression.

**Types**`Array (no subarrays)`

`MATLAB expression`

**Array size**Specify the size of the array as a positive integer or 1-by-2 vector of positive integers.

If

**Array size**is a 1-by-2 vector, the vector has the form`[NumberOfArrayRows,NumberOfArrayColumns]`

.If

**Array size**is an integer, the array has the same number of rows and columns.

Elements are indexed from top to bottom along a column and continuing to the next columns from left to right. In this figure, an

**Array size**of`[3,2]`

produces an array has three rows and two columns.**Element spacing**Specify the element spacing of the array, in meters, as a 1-by-2 vector or a scalar. If

**Element spacing**is a 1-by-2 vector, the vector has the form`[SpacingBetweenRows,SpacingBetweenColumns]`

. For a discussion of these quantities, see`phased.URA`

. If**Element spacing**is a scalar, the spacings between rows and columns are equal.**Element lattice**Specify the element lattice as one of

`Rectangular`

or`Triangular`

.`Rectangular`

— Aligns all the elements in row and column directions.`Triangular`

— Shifts the even-row elements of a rectangular lattice toward the positive-row axis direction. The elements are shifted a distance of half the element spacing along the row.

**Array normal**,This parameter appears when you set

**Geometry**to`URA`

or`UCA`

. Specify the**Array normal**as`x`

,`y`

, or`z`

. All URA and UCA array elements are placed in the*yz*,*zx*, or*xy*-planes, respectively, of the array coordinate system.**Taper**Tapers, also known as

*element weights*, are applied to sensor elements in the array. Tapers are used to modify both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted or received data.Specify element tapering as a complex-valued scalar or complex-valued

*M*-by-*N*matrix. In this matrix,*M*is the number of elements along the*z*-axis, and*N*is the number of elements along the*y*-axis.*M*and*N*correspond to the values of`[NumberofRows, NumberOfColumns]`

in the**Array size**matrix. If`Taper`

is a scalar, the same weight is applied to each element. If the value of**Taper**is a matrix, a weight from the matrix is applied to the corresponding sensor element. A weight must be applied to each element in the sensor array.**Expression**A valid MATLAB expression containing a constructor for a uniform rectangular array, for example,

`phased.URA`

.

**Element type**Specify antenna or microphone type as

`Isotropic Antenna`

`Cosine Antenna`

`Custom Antenna`

`Omni Microphone`

`Custom Microphone`

**Exponent of cosine pattern**This parameter appears when you set

**Element type**to`Cosine Antenna`

.Specify the exponent of the cosine pattern as a scalar or a 1-by-2 vector. You must specify all values as non-negative real numbers. When you set

**Exponent of cosine pattern**to a scalar, both the azimuth direction cosine pattern and the elevation direction cosine pattern are raised to the specified value. When you set**Exponent of cosine pattern**to a 1-by-2 vector, the first element is the exponent for the azimuth direction cosine pattern and the second element is the exponent for the elevation direction cosine pattern.**Operating frequency range (Hz)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Isotropic Antenna`

,`Cosine Antenna`

, or`Omni Microphone`

.Specify the operating frequency range, in hertz, of the antenna element as a 1-by-2 row vector in the form

`[LowerBound,UpperBound]`

. The antenna element has no response outside the specified frequency range.**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Custom Antenna`

or`Custom Microphone`

.Specify the frequencies, in Hz, at which to set the antenna and microphone frequency responses as a 1-by-

*L*row vector of increasing values. Use**Frequency responses**to set the frequency responses. The antenna or microphone element has no response outside the frequency range specified by the minimum and maximum elements of**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**.**Frequency responses (dB)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Custom Antenna`

or`Custom Microphone`

.Specify this parameter as the frequency response of an antenna or microphone, in decibels, for the frequencies defined by

**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**. Specify**Frequency responses (dB)**as a 1-by-*L*vector matching the dimensions of the vector specified in**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**.**Azimuth angles (deg)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Custom Antenna`

.Specify the azimuth angles at which to calculate the antenna radiation pattern as a 1-by-

*P*row vector.*P*must be greater than 2. Angle units are in degrees. Azimuth angles must lie between –180° and 180° and be in strictly increasing order.**Elevation angles (deg)**This parameter appears when the

**Element type**is set to`Custom Antenna`

.Specify the elevation angles at which to compute the radiation pattern as a 1-by-

*Q*vector.*Q*must be greater than 2. Angle units are in degrees. Elevation angles must lie between –90° and 90° and be in strictly increasing order.**Radiation pattern (dB)**This parameter appears when the

**Element type**is set to`Custom Antenna`

.The magnitude in db of the combined polarized antenna radiation pattern specified as a

*Q*-by-*P*matrix or a*Q*-by-*P*-by-*L*array. The value of*Q*must match the value of*Q*specified by**Elevation angles (deg)**. The value of*P*must match the value of*P*specified by**Azimuth angles (deg_**. The value of*L*must match the value of*L*specified by**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**.**Polar pattern frequencies (Hz)**This parameter appears when the

**Element type**is set to`Custom Microphone`

.Specify the measuring frequencies of the polar patterns as a 1-by-

*M*vector. The measuring frequencies lie within the frequency range specified by**Operating frequency vector (Hz)**. Frequency units are in Hz.**Polar pattern angles (deg)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Custom Microphone`

.Specify the measuring angles of the polar patterns, as a 1-by-

*N*vector. The angles are measured from the central pickup axis of the microphone, and must be between –180° and 180°, inclusive.**Polar pattern (dB)**This parameter appears when

**Element type**is set to`Custom Microphone`

.Specify the magnitude of the microphone element polar pattern as an

*M*-by-*N*matrix.*M*is the number of measuring frequencies specified in**Polar pattern frequencies (Hz)**.*N*is the number of measuring angles specified in**Polar pattern angles (deg)**. Each row of the matrix represents the magnitude of the polar pattern measured at the corresponding frequency specified in**Polar pattern frequencies (Hz)**and all angles specified in**Polar pattern angles (deg)**. Assume that the pattern is measured in the azimuth plane. In the azimuth plane, the elevation angle is 0° and the central pickup axis is 0° degrees azimuth and 0° degrees elevation. Assume that the polar pattern is symmetric around the central axis. You can construct the microphone’s response pattern in 3-D space from the polar pattern.**Baffle the back of the element**This check box appears only when the

**Element type**parameter is set to`Isotropic Antenna`

or`Omni Microphone`

.Select this check box to baffle the back of the antenna element. In this case, the antenna responses to all azimuth angles beyond ±90° from

*broadside*are set to zero. Define the broadside direction as 0° azimuth angle and 0° elevation angle.

The block input and output ports correspond to the input and
output parameters described in the `step`

method of
the underlying System
object. See link at the bottom of this page.

Port | Description | Supported Data Types |
---|---|---|

`X` | Input signal. The size of the first dimension of the input matrix can vary to simulate a changing signal length. A size change can occur, for example, in the case of a pulse waveform with variable pulse repetition frequency. | Double-precision floating point |

`Steer` | Initial estimate of arrival directions. | Double-precision floating point |

`Ang` | Estimate of arrival directions. | Double-precision floating point |