This is not typically possible. Most systems do not have i2c connectors directly available.
MS Windows does support the possibility of display boards having i2c connections, and defines a method for accessing the devices through the miniport. I do not know if matlab has any direct support for this.
There are i2c to usb adapters available. I have not investigated to see how you would use them.
There are i2c PCI interface boards. It appears that matlab supports the Total Phase Aardvark and an NI interface board with the Instrument Control Toolbox https://www.mathworks.com/help/instrument/i2c-communication.html available