Use these examples to learn how to model photovoltaic and wind systems and generators.
How the performance of a rotational energy scavenger can be explored using a simple representative model. Electrical energy is produced from an off-center mass attached to the shaft of a DC motor. The mass, geometry, motor and electrical parameters must be matched to the expected mechanical excitation. The generated electrical power is less than the extracted mechanical power primarily due to motor winding losses and viscous damping for the rotor. This example is based on Nunna, K. "Constructive interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control with applications", Imperial College London (2014). The model here is simplified in that the DC-DC converter is omitted.
Kinetic Energy Recovery System
Operation of a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) on a Formula 1 car. The model permits the benefits to be explored. During braking, energy is stored in a lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor combination. It is assumed that a maximum of 400KJ of energy is to be delivered in one lap at a maximum power of 60KW. Design parameters are the weight of the battery, ultracapacitor and motor-generator. If these parameters are all set to the very small value of 0.01kg, the lap time is 95.0 seconds, this corresponding to a car with no KERS. With default values set here, approximately 1/4 of a second is saved on the lap time when using any available electrical power when not braking. Applying KERS only to selected corners requires a larger ultracapacitor to show any significant benefit.
Create system-level model of a photovoltaic generator that can be used to simulate performance using historical irradiance data. Here the model is tested by varying the irradiance which approximates the effect of varying cloud cover. Power generation steps immediately following the irradiance change. Environmental temperature also varies during the test. The DC-AC converter efficiency is assumed to be a fixed 97 percent, this value having been determined from the ee_solar_inverter example model.
Solar Cell Power Curve
Generate the power-voltage curve for a solar array. Understanding the power-voltage curve is important for inverter design. Ideally the solar array would always be operating at peak power given the irradiance level and panel temperature.
Solar Panel Parameterization Validation
Model a solar panel using information from a manufacturer datasheet. The data is imported and used to generate current-voltage and power-voltage curves for the solar panel. The power-voltage curve is useful for designing an inverter because it helps to identify the peak power for a given irradiance level and panel cell temperature
Solar Power Inverter
Determine the efficiency of a single-stage solar inverter. The model simulates one complete AC cycle for a specified level of solar irradiance and corresponding optimal DC voltage and AC RMS current. Using the example model ee_solar_characteristics, the optimal values have been determined as 342V DC and 20.05A AC for an irradiance of 1000W/m^2 and panel temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. Inverter efficiency is determined in two independent ways. The first compares the ratio of AC power out to DC power in over one AC cycle. The second calculates losses by component by making use of Simscape™ logging. The small difference in calculated efficiency value is due to differences between trapezoidal integration used by the script and the greater accuracy achieved by the Simulink® variable-step solver.
Three-Phase Asynchronous Wind Turbine Generator
An induction machine used as a wind turbine generator. The Simple Turbine block converts wind speed to turbine output power by a simple output power versus wind speed characteristic.
Three-Phase Synchronous Machine Governor Control Design
Script shows how you can linearize a Simscape™ Electrical™ model to support control system stability analysis and design. It uses example model ee_sm_governor_control_design.
Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Hybrid Solar Panel
Model a multi-domain power cogeneration system using Simscape™, Simscape Electrical™, and Simscape Fluids™.
Single-Phase Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System
Model a rooftop single-phase grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This example supports design decisions about the number of panels and the connection topology required to deliver the target power. The model represents a grid-connected rooftop solar PV that is implemented without an intermediate DC-DC converter. To parameterize the model, the example uses information from a solar panel manufacturer datasheet. Solar power is injected into the grid with unity power factor (UPF).
Three-Phase Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System
Model a three-phase grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system. This example supports design decisions about the number of panels and the connection topology required to deliver the target power. The model represents a grid-connected rooftop solar PV that is implemented without an intermediate DC-DC converter. To parameterize the model, the example uses information from a solar panel manufacturer datasheet. Solar power is injected into the grid with unity power factor (UPF).
Solar PV System with MPPT Using Boost Converter
The design of a boost converter for controlling the power output of a solar PV system and helps you to: Determine how the panels should be arranged in terms of the number of series-connected strings and the number of panels per string to achieve the required power rating.
Stand-Alone Solar PV AC Power System with Battery Backup
The design of a stand-alone PV AC power system with battery backup and helps you to: Choose the necessary battery rating based on the connected load profile and available solar power.
Stand-Alone Solar PV DC Power System with Battery Backup
The design of a stand-alone PV DC power system with battery backup and helps you to: Choose the necessary battery rating based on the connected load profile and available solar power.
Piezo Bender Energy Harvester
Model a device that harvests energy from a vibrating object by using a piezo bender. The device uses this energy to charge a battery and power a load.
Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic System Shading
Implement shading effects in a solar photovoltaics (PV) plant or module. The solar plant block is created using Simscape™ language. Shading in a solar plant or module occurs when solar irradiance is not uniform across all solar PV modules or cells. You can use this example to study the effects of shading and PV cell junction temperature in a large interconnected solar plant or a single PV module. To improve the maximum power and to protect the solar panel from overheating, the Solar Plant block comprises bypass and blocking diodes. To define the shading, set the values of the Irradiance and Temperature parameters.
Green Hydrogen Microgrid
A DC islanded microgrid that provides power to an electrolyzer using a solar array and an energy storage system. You can use this model to evaluate the operational characteristics of producing green hydrogen over a 7-day period by power from a solar array, or from a combination of a solar array and an energy storage system. The model includes electrical, thermal liquid, and thermal gas domains.
Model, parameterize, and test a wind turbine with a supervisory, pitch angle, and MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and derating control. When you run the plot function, it generates a plot of the state transitions, normalized physical quantities such as the wind speed, wind turbine rotation speed, generator power, and pitch angle.
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