# makerefmat

(Removed) Construct affine spatial-referencing matrix

`makerefmat`

has been removed. Create a raster reference object using
the `georefcells`

, `georefpostings`

, `georasterref`

, `maprefcells`

, `maprefpostings`

, or `maprasterref`

function instead. For more information, see Compatibility Considerations.

## Syntax

`R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, dy)`

R = makerefmat(lon11, lat11, dlon, dlat)

R = makerefmat(param1, val1, param2, val2, ...)

## Description

`R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, dy)`

, with scalars
`dx`

and `dy`

, constructs a referencing matrix that
aligns image or data grid rows to map *x* and columns to map
*y*. Scalars `x11`

and `y11`

specify the map location of the center of the first (1,1) pixel in the image or the first
element of the data grid.

`dx`

is the difference in *x* (or longitude) between
pixels in successive columns, and `dy`

is the difference in
*y* (or latitude) between pixels in successive rows.

Pixels cover squares on the map when `abs(dx) = abs(dy)`

. To achieve
the most typical kind of alignment, where *x* increases from column to
column and *y* decreases from row to row, make `dx`

positive and `dy`

negative. In order to specify such an alignment along
with square pixels, make `dx`

positive and make `dy`

equal to `-dx`

:

R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, -dx)

`R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, dy)`

, with two-element vectors
`dx`

and `dy`

, constructs the most general possible
kind of referencing matrix.

In this general case, each pixel can become a parallelogram on the map, with neither
edge necessarily aligned to map *x* or *y*. The
vector `[dx(1) dy(1)]`

is the difference in map location between a pixel
in one row and its neighbor in the preceding row. Likewise, ```
[dx(2)
dy(2)]
```

is the difference in map location between a pixel in one column and its
neighbor in the preceding column.

To specify pixels that are rectangular or square (but possibly rotated), choose
`dx`

and `dy`

such that ```
prod(dx) + prod(dy) =
0
```

. To specify square (but possibly rotated) pixels, choose
`dx`

and `dy`

such that the 2-by-2 matrix
`[dx(:) dy(:)]`

is a scalar multiple of an orthogonal matrix (that is,
its two eigenvalues are real, nonzero, and equal in absolute value). This amounts to either
rotation, a mirror image, or a combination of both. Note that for scalars
`dx`

and `dy`

,

R = makerefmat(x11, y11, [0 dx], [dy 0])

is equivalent to

R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, dy)

`R = makerefmat(lon11, lat11, dlon, dlat)`

, with longitude preceding
latitude, constructs a referencing matrix for use with geographic coordinates.

`R = makerefmat(param1, val1, param2, val2, ...)`

uses parameter
name-value pairs to construct a referencing matrix for an image or raster grid that is
referenced to and aligned with a geographic coordinate system. There can be no rotation or
skew: each column must fall along a meridian, and each row must fall along a parallel. Each
parameter name must be specified exactly as shown, including case.

Parameter Name | Data Type | Value |
---|---|---|

`RasterSize` | Two-element size vector `[M N]` | The number of rows ( With R = makerefmat('RasterSize', ... size(RGB), ...) `RGB` is
`M-by-N-by-3` . However, in cases like this, only the
first two elements of the size vector will actually be used. The higher
(non-spatial) dimensions will be ignored. The default value is [1
1]. |

`LatitudeLimits` | Two-element row vector of the form: ```
[southern_limit,
northern_limit]
``` , in units of degrees. | The limits in latitude of the geographic quadrangle bounding the georeferenced raster. The default value is [0 1]. |

`LongitudeLimits` | Two-element row vector of the form: ```
[western_limit,
eastern_limit]
``` , in units of degrees. | The limits in longitude of the geographic quadrangle bounding the
georeferenced raster. The elements of the `'LongitudeLimits'`
vector must be ascending in value. In other words, the limits must be
unwrapped. The default value is [0 1]. |

`ColumnsStartFrom` | String scalar or character vector | Indicates the column direction of the raster (south-to-north vs.
north-to-south) in terms of the edge from which row indexing starts. Values are
`'south'` or `'north'` and they can be
shortened, and are case-insensitive. In a typical terrain grid, row indexing
starts at southern edge. In images, row indexing starts at northern edge. The
default value is `'south'` . |

`RowsStartFrom` | String scalar or character vector | Indicates the row direction of the raster (west-to-east vs. east-to-west)
in terms of the edge from which column indexing starts. Values are:
`'west'` or `'east'` and they can be
shortened, and are case-insensitive. Rows almost always run from west to east.
The default value is `'west'` . |

## Examples

Create a referencing matrix for an image with square, four-meter pixels and with its
upper left corner (in a map coordinate system) at *x* = 207000
meters, *y* = 913000 meters. The image follows the typical
orientation: *x* increasing from column to column and
*y* decreasing from row to row.

x11 = 207002; % Two meters east of the upper left corner y11 = 912998; % Two meters south of the upper left corner dx = 4; dy = -4; R = makerefmat(x11, y11, dx, dy)

## More About

## Version History

## See Also

`maprasterref`

| `georasterref`

| `georefpostings`

| `georefcells`

| `maprefcells`

| `maprefpostings`