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Loss of incremental learning model on batch of data

`loss`

returns the regression or classification loss of a configured incremental learning model for linear regression (`incrementalRegressionLinear`

object) or linear, binary classification (`incrementalClassificationLinear`

object).

To measure model performance on a data stream, and store the results in the output model, call `updateMetrics`

or `updateMetricsAndFit`

instead.

You can measure the performance of an incremental model on streaming data in three ways:

Cumulative metrics measure the performance since the start of incremental learning.

Window metrics measure the performance on a specified window of observations. The metrics update every time the model processes the specified window.

The

`loss`

function measures the performance only on a specified batch of data.

Load the human activity data set. Randomly shuffle the data.

load humanactivity n = numel(actid); rng(1); % For reproducibility idx = randsample(n,n); X = feat(idx,:); Y = actid(idx);

For details on the data set, display `Description`

.

Responses can be one of five classes. Dichotomize the response by identifying whether the subject is moving (`actid`

> 2).

Y = Y > 2;

Create an incremental linear SVM model for binary classification. Prime it for `loss`

by specifying the class names, the prior class distribution is uniform, arbitrary coefficient and bias values. Specify a metrics window size of 1000 observations.

p = size(X,2); Beta = randn(p,1); Bias = randn(1); Mdl = incrementalClassificationLinear('Beta',Beta,'Bias',Bias,... 'ClassNames',unique(Y),'Prior','uniform','MetricsWindowSize',1000);

`Mdl`

is an `incrementalClassificationLinear`

model. All its properties are read-only. As an alternative to specifying arbitrary values, you can take either of the following actions to prime the model:

Train an SVM model using

`fitcsvm`

or`fitclinear`

on a subset of the data (if such data is available), and then convert the model to an incremental learner by using`incrementalLearner`

.Incrementally fit

`Mdl`

to data by using`fit`

.

Simulate a data stream, and perform the following actions on each incoming chunk of 50 observations.

Call

`updateMetrics`

to measure the cumulative performance and the performance within a window of observations. Overwrite the previous incremental model with a new one to track performance metrics.Call

`loss`

to measure the model performance on the incoming chunk.Call

`fit`

to fit the model to the incoming chunk. Overwrite the previous incremental model with a new one fitted to the incoming observation.Store all performance metrics to monitor their evolution during incremental learning.

% Preallocation numObsPerChunk = 50; nchunk = floor(n/numObsPerChunk); ce = array2table(zeros(nchunk,3),'VariableNames',["Cumulative" "Window" "Loss"]); % Incremental learning for j = 1:nchunk ibegin = min(n,numObsPerChunk*(j-1) + 1); iend = min(n,numObsPerChunk*j); idx = ibegin:iend; Mdl = updateMetrics(Mdl,X(idx,:),Y(idx)); ce{j,["Cumulative" "Window"]} = Mdl.Metrics{"ClassificationError",:}; ce{j,"Loss"} = loss(Mdl,X(idx,:),Y(idx)); Mdl = fit(Mdl,X(idx,:),Y(idx)); end

`Mdl`

is an `incrementalClassificationLinear`

model object that has experienced all the data in the stream. During incremental learning and after the model is warmed up, `updateMetrics`

checks the performance of the model on the incoming observation, then fits the model to that observation. `loss`

is agnostic of the metrics warm-up period, so it measures the classification error for all iterations.

To see how the performance metrics evolved during training, plot them on separate subplots.

figure; h = plot(ce.Variables); xlim([0 nchunk]); ylim([0 0.05]) ylabel('Classification Error') xline(Mdl.MetricsWarmupPeriod/numObsPerChunk,'r-.'); legend(h,ce.Properties.VariableNames) xlabel('Iteration')

During the metrics warm-up period (before red line), the yellow line represents the classification error on each incoming chunk of data. After the metrics warm-up period, the `Mdl`

tracks cumulative and window metrics. The cumulative and batch losses converge as `fit`

fits the incremental model to the incoming data.

Fit an incremental learning model for regression to streaming data, and compute the mean absolute deviation (MAD) on the incoming batches data.

Load the robot arm data set.

```
load robotarm
n = numel(ytrain);
p = size(Xtrain,2);
```

For details on the data set, display `Description`

.

Create an incremental linear model for regression. Configure the model as follows:

Specify a metrics warm-up period of 1000 observations.

Specify a metrics window size of 500 observations.

Track the mean absolute deviation (MAD) to measure the performance of the model. Create an anonymous function that measures the absolute error of each new observation. Create a structure array containing the name

`MeanAbsoluteError`

and its corresponding function.Prime the model to predict responses by specifying that all regression coefficients and the bias are 0.

maefcn = @(z,zfit,w)(abs(z - zfit)); maemetric = struct("MeanAbsoluteError",maefcn); Mdl = incrementalRegressionLinear('MetricsWarmupPeriod',1000,'MetricsWindowSize',500,... 'Metrics',maemetric,'Beta',zeros(p,1),'Bias',0,'EstimationPeriod',0)

Mdl = incrementalRegressionLinear IsWarm: 0 Metrics: [2×2 table] ResponseTransform: 'none' Beta: [32×1 double] Bias: 0 Learner: 'svm' Properties, Methods

`Mdl`

is an `incrementalRegressionLinear`

model object configured for incremental learning.

Simulate a data stream, and perform a incremental learning. At each iteration:

Process a chunk of 50 observations.

Call

`updateMetrics`

to compute cumulative and window metrics on the incoming chunk of data. Overwrite the previous incremental model with a new one fitted to overwrite the previous metrics.Call

`loss`

to compute the MAD on the incoming chunk of data. Whereas the cumulative and window metrics require that custom losses return the loss for each observation,`loss`

requires the loss on the entire chunk. Compute the mean of the absolute deviation.Call

`fit`

to fit the incremental model to the incoming chunk of data.Store the cumulative, window, and chunk metrics to monitor their evolution during incremental learning.

% Preallocation numObsPerChunk = 50; nchunk = floor(n/numObsPerChunk); mae = array2table(zeros(nchunk,3),'VariableNames',["Cumulative" "Window" "Chunk"]); % Incremental fitting for j = 1:nchunk ibegin = min(n,numObsPerChunk*(j-1) + 1); iend = min(n,numObsPerChunk*j); idx = ibegin:iend; Mdl = updateMetrics(Mdl,Xtrain(idx,:),ytrain(idx)); mae{j,1:2} = Mdl.Metrics{"MeanAbsoluteError",:}; mae{j,3} = loss(Mdl,Xtrain(idx,:),ytrain(idx),'LossFun',@(x,y,w)mean(maefcn(x,y,w))); Mdl = fit(Mdl,Xtrain(idx,:),ytrain(idx)); end

`IncrementalMdl`

is an `incrementalRegressionLinear`

model object that has experienced all the data in the stream. During incremental learning and after the model is warmed up, `updateMetricsAndFit`

checks the performance of the model on the incoming observation, then fits the model to that observation.

Plot the performance metrics to see how they evolved during incremental learning.

figure; h = plot(mae.Variables); ylabel('Mean Absolute Deviation') xline(Mdl.MetricsWarmupPeriod/numObsPerChunk,'r-.'); xlabel('Iteration') legend(h,mae.Properties.VariableNames)

The plot suggests that:

`updateMetrics`

computes performance metrics only after the metrics warm-up period`updateMetrics`

Computes the cumulative metrics during each iteration`updateMetrics`

computes the window metrics after processing 500 observationsBecause

`Mdl`

was primed to predict observations from the beginning of incremental learning,`loss`

can compute the MAD on each incoming chunk of data.

`Mdl`

— Incremental learning model`incrementalClassificationLinear`

model object | `incrementalRegressionLinear`

model objectIncremental learning model, specified as a `incrementalClassificationLinear`

or `incrementalRegressionLinear`

model object, created directly or by converting a supported traditionally trained machine learning model using `incrementalLearner`

. For more details, see the reference page corresponding to the learning problem.

You must prime `Mdl`

to compute its loss on a batch of observations.

If

`Mdl`

is a converted traditionally trained model, you can compute its loss without any modifications.Otherwise,

`Mdl`

must satisfy the following criteria, by your specifications or by being fit to data using`fit`

or`updateMetricsAndFit`

.If

`Mdl`

is an`incrementalRegressionLinear`

model, its model coefficients`Mdl.Beta`

and bias`Mdl.Bias`

must be non-empty arrays.If

`Mdl`

is an`incrementalClassificationLinear`

model, its model coefficients`Mdl.Beta`

and bias`Mdl.Bias`

must be nonempty arrays, the class names set`Mdl.ClassNames`

must contain two classes, and the prior class distribution`Mdl.Prior`

must contain known values.Regardless of object type, if you configured the model so that functions standardize predictor data, predictor means

`Mdl.Mu`

and standard deviations`Mdl.Sigma`

must be nonempty arrays.

`X`

— Batch of predictor datafloating-point matrix

Batch of predictor data with which to compute the loss, specified as a floating-point matrix of *n* observations and `Mdl.NumPredictors`

predictor variables. The value of the `'ObservationsIn'`

name-value pair argument determines the orientation of the variables and observations.

The length of the observation labels `Y`

and the number of observations in `X`

must be equal; `Y(`

is the label of observation (row or column) * j*)

`X`

.The length of the observation labels `Y`

and the number of observations in `X`

must be equal; `Y(`

is the label of observation (row or column) * j*)

`X`

.**Note**

`loss`

supports only floating-point input predictor data. If the input model `Mdl`

represents a converted, traditionally trained model and it was fit to categorical data, use `dummyvar`

to convert each categorical variable to a numeric matrix of dummy variables, and concatenate all dummy-variable matrices and any other numeric predictors. For more details, see Dummy Variables.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`Y`

— Batch of labelscategorical array | character array | string array | logical vector | floating-point vector | cell array of character vectors

Batch of labels with which to compute the loss, specified as a categorical, character, or string array, logical or floating-point vector, or cell array of character vectors for classification problems, and a floating-point vector for regression problems.

The length of the observation labels `Y`

and the number of observations in `X`

must be equal; `Y(`

is the label of observation (row or column) * j*)

`X`

.For classification problems:

`loss`

supports binary classification only.If the

`ClassNames`

property of the input model`Mdl`

is non-empty, the following conditions apply.If

`Y`

contains a label that is not a member of`Mdl.ClassNames`

`loss`

issues an error.The data type of

`Y`

and`Mdl.ClassNames`

must be the same.

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

| `cell`

| `categorical`

| `logical`

| `single`

| `double`

Specify optional
comma-separated pairs of `Name,Value`

arguments. `Name`

is
the argument name and `Value`

is the corresponding value.
`Name`

must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value
pair arguments in any order as
`Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN`

.

`'ObservationsIn','columns','Weights',W`

specifies that the columns of the predictor matrix correspond to observations, and the vector `W`

contains observation weights to apply during incremental learning.`'LossFun'`

— Loss functionstring vector | function handle | cell vector | structure array | ...

Loss function, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'LossFun'`

and a built-in, loss-function name or function handle.

**Classification Problems**: The following table lists the available loss functions when`Mdl`

is an`incrementalClassificationLinear`

model. Specify one using its corresponding character vector or string scalar.Name Description `"binodeviance"`

Binomial deviance `"classiferror"`

(default)Classification error `"exponential"`

Exponential `"hinge"`

Hinge `"logit"`

Logistic `"quadratic"`

Quadratic For more details, see Classification Loss.

Logistic regression learners return posterior probabilities as classification scores, but SVM learners do not (see

`predict`

).To specify a custom loss function, use function handle notation. The function must have this form:

lossval =

*lossfcn*(C,S,W)where:

The output argument

`lossval`

is a floating-point scalar.You choose the function name (

).`lossfcn`

`C`

is an*n*-by-2 logical matrix with rows indicating the class to which the corresponding observation belongs. The column order corresponds to the class order in the`ClassNames`

property. Construct`C`

by setting`C(`

=,`p`

)`q`

`1`

, if observation

is in class`p`

, for each observation in the specified data. Set the other element in row`q`

to`p`

`0`

.`S`

is an*n*-by-2 numeric matrix of predicted classification scores.`S`

is similar to the`score`

output of`predict`

, where rows correspond to observations in the data and the column order corresponds to the class order in the`ClassNames`

property.`S(`

is the classification score of observation,`p`

)`q`

being classified in class`p`

.`q`

`W`

is an*n*-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights.

**Regression Problems**: The following table lists the available loss functions when`Mdl`

is an`incrementalRegressionLinear`

model. Specify one using its corresponding character vector or string scalar.Name Description Learners Supporting Metric `"epsiloninsensitive"`

Epsilon-insensitive loss `'svm'`

`"mse"`

(default)Weighted mean squared error `'svm'`

and`'leastsquares'`

For more details, see Regression Loss.

To specify a custom loss function, use function handle notation. The function must have this form:

lossval =

*lossfcn*(Y,YFit,W)where:

The output argument

`lossval`

is a floating-point scalar.You choose the function name (

).`lossfcn`

`Y`

is a length*n*numeric vector of observed responses.`YFit`

is a length*n*numeric vector of corresponding predicted responses.`W`

is an*n*-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights.

**Example: **`'LossFun',"mse"`

**Example: **`'LossFun',@`

`lossfcn`

**Data Types: **`char`

| `string`

| `function_handle`

`'ObservationsIn'`

— Predictor data observation dimension`'rows'`

(default) | `'columns'`

Predictor data observation dimension, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'ObservationsIn'`

and `'columns'`

or `'rows'`

.

`'Weights'`

— Batch of observation weightsfloating-point vector of positive values

Batch of observation weights, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'Weights'`

and a floating-point vector of positive values. `loss`

weighs the observations in the input data with the corresponding value in `Weights`

. The size of `Weights`

must equal *n*, which is the number of observations in the input data.

By default, `Weights`

is `ones(`

.* n*,1)

For more details, see Observation Weights.

**Data Types: **`double`

| `single`

*Classification loss* functions measure the predictive inaccuracy of classification models. When you compare the same type of loss among many models, a lower loss indicates a better predictive model.

Consider the following scenario.

*L*is the weighted average classification loss.*n*is the sample size.For binary classification:

*y*is the observed class label. The software codes it as –1 or 1, indicating the negative or positive class, respectively._{j}*f*(*X*) is the raw classification score for observation (row)_{j}*j*of the predictor data*X*.*m*=_{j}*y*_{j}*f*(*X*) is the classification score for classifying observation_{j}*j*into the class corresponding to*y*. Positive values of_{j}*m*indicate correct classification and do not contribute much to the average loss. Negative values of_{j}*m*indicate incorrect classification and contribute significantly to the average loss._{j}

The weight for observation

*j*is*w*._{j}

Given this scenario, the following table describes the supported loss functions that you can specify by using the `'LossFun'`

name-value pair argument.

Loss Function | Value of `LossFun` | Equation |
---|---|---|

Binomial deviance | `"binodeviance"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left\{1+\mathrm{exp}\left[-2{m}_{j}\right]\right\}}.$$ |

Exponential loss | `"exponential"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)}.$$ |

Classification error | `"classiferror"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}I\left\{{\widehat{y}}_{j}\ne {y}_{j}\right\}.$$ It is the weighted fraction of misclassified observations where $${\widehat{y}}_{j}$$ is the class label corresponding to the class with the maximal posterior probability. |

Hinge loss | `"hinge"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum}_{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{max}\left\{0,1-{m}_{j}\right\}.$$ |

Logit loss | `"logit"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left(1+\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)\right)}.$$ |

Quadratic loss | `"quadratic"` | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}{\left(1-{m}_{j}\right)}^{2}}.$$ |

This figure compares the loss functions for one observation over *m*. Some functions are normalized to pass through [0,1].

*Regression loss* functions measure the predictive inaccuracy of regression models. When you compare the same type of loss among many models, a lower loss indicates a better predictive model.

Consider the following scenario.

*L*is the weighted average classification loss.*n*is the sample size.*y*is the observed response of observation_{j}*j*.*f*(*X*) =_{j}*β*_{0}+*x*_{j}*β*is the predicted value of observation*j*of the predictor data*X*, where*β*_{0}is the bias and*β*is the vector of coefficients.The weight for observation

*j*is*w*._{j}

Given this scenario, the following table describes the supported loss functions that you can specify by using the `'LossFun'`

name-value pair argument.

Loss Function | Value of `LossFun` | Equation |
---|---|---|

Epsilon-insensitive loss | `"epsiloninsensitive"` |
$$L=\mathrm{max}\left[0,\left|y-f\left(x\right)\right|-\epsilon \right]$$ |

Mean squared error | `"mse"` |
$$L={\left[y-f\left(x\right)\right]}^{2}$$ |

For classification problems, if the prior class probability distribution is known (`Mdl.Prior`

is not composed of `NaN`

values), `loss`

normalizes observation weights to sum to the prior class probabilities in the respective classes. This action implies that observation weights are the respective prior class probabilities by default.

For regression problems or if the prior class probability distribution is unknown, the software normalizes the specified observation weights to sum to 1 each time you call `loss`

.

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