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Getting Started with Video Classification Using Deep Learning

Video classification is similar to image classification, in that the algorithm uses feature extractors, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), to extract feature descriptors from a sequence of images and then classify them into categories. Video classification using deep learning provides a means to analyze, classify, and track activity contained in visual data sources, such as a video stream. Video classification has many applications, such as human activity recognition, gesture recognition, anomaly detection, and surveillance.

Video classification methodology includes these steps:

  1. Prepare training data

  2. Choose a video classifier

  3. Train and evaluate the classifier

  4. Use the classifier to process video data

You can train a classifier using a video classifier pretrained on a large activity recognition video data set, such as the Kinetics-400 Human Action Dataset, which is a large-scale and high-quality data set collection. Start by providing the video classifier with labeled video or video clips. Then, using a deep learning video classifier that consists of convolution neural networks that match the nature of the video input, you can predict and classify the videos. Ideally, your workflow should include the evaluation of your classifier. Finally, you can use the classifier to classify activity in a collection of videos or a streaming video from a webcam.

Computer Vision Toolbox™ provides the slow and fast pathway (SlowFast), ResNet with (2+1)D convolutions, and two-stream Inflated-3D techniques for training a classifier of video classification.

Three video clips that feed into a video recogntiion network, and the predicted classifications from the network.

Create Training Data for Video Classification

To train a classifier network, you need a collection of videos and its corresponding collection of scene labels. A scene label is a label applied to a time range in a video. For example, you could label a range of frames "jumping".

You can use the Video Labeler or Ground Truth Labeler (Automated Driving Toolbox) to interactively label ground truth data in a video, image sequence, or custom data source with scene labels. For a summary all labelers, see Choose an App to Label Ground Truth Data.

Video Labeler window with individual waving at camera, labeled with "wavingHello" ground truth.

The labeler apps export labeled data into MAT files that contain groundTruth objects. For an example showing how to extract training data from ground truth objects, see Extract Training Data for Video Classification.

Augment and Preprocess Data

Data augmentation provides a way to use limited data sets for training. Minor changes, such as translating, cropping, or transforming an image, provide new, distinct, and unique images that you can use to train a robust video classifier. Datastores are a convenient way to read and augment collections of data. Use the fileDatastore function with a read function that uses the VideoReader to read video files, to create datastores for videos and labeled scene label data. For an example that augments and preprocesses data, see Gesture Recognition using Videos and Deep Learning.

To learn how to augment and preprocess data, see Perform Additional Image Processing Operations Using Built-In Datastores (Deep Learning Toolbox) and Datastores for Deep Learning (Deep Learning Toolbox).

Create Video Classifier

Choose one of the listed video classifier objects to create deep learning classification networks using models pretrained models using the Kinetics-400 data set (which contains 400 class labels):

  • The slowFastVideoClassifier model is pretrained on the Kinetics-400 data set which contains the residual network ResNet-50 model as the backbone architecture with slow and fast pathways. This functionality requires the Computer Vision Toolbox Model for SlowFast Video Classification.

  • The r2plus1dVideoClassifier model is pretrained on the Kinetics-400 data set which contains 18 spatio-temporal (ST) residual layers. This functionality requires the Computer Vision Toolbox Model for R(2+1)D Video Classification.

  • The inflated3dVideoClassifier model contains two subnetworks: the video network and the optical flow network. These networks are trained on the Kinetics-400 data set with RGB data and optical flow data, respectively. This functionality requires the Computer Vision Toolbox Model for Inflated-3D Video Classification.

The table provides a comparison of the these deep learning supported classifiers:

Model

Data Sources

Classifier Model Size (Pretained on Kinetics-400 Dataset)

GPU Support

Multiple Class Support

Description

SlowFast

Video data

124 MB

Yes

Yes

  • Faster convergence during training than the Inflated-3D video classifier. Transfer learning on your data set can be slower than the R(2+1)D video classifier because of the two pathways in the 3-D convolutional neural network.

  • The 3-D convolutional neural network is deeper than those of the Inflated-3D and R(2+1)D video classifiers.

  • Does not require optical flow data, in addition to video data

  • You must use a low MiniBatchSize value per GPU because of the depth of the residual layers. The value must be much lower than for a corresponding R(2+1)D classifier because of the two pathways (roughly half the value you would use for R(2+1)D).

  • Choose this classifier to obtain good classification accuracy results for your data set, and for faster convergence during transfer learning at the expense of greater GPU memory requirements.

R(2+1)D

Video data

112 MB

Yes

Yes

  • Faster convergence during training than the Inflated-3D video classifier.

  • The 3-D convolutional neural network is deeper than the Inflated-3D CNN.

  • Does not require optical flow data or RGB data.

  • Choose this classifier to obtain good classification accuracy results for your data set, and for faster convergence during transfer learning at the expense of greater GPU memory requirements.

  • You must reduce the MiniBatchSize per GPU, because of the depth of the residual layers.

Inflated-3D

  • Optical flow data

  • Video data

91 MB

Yes

Yes

  • Accuracy of the classifier improves when combining optical flow and RGB data.

  • Slower convergence during training compared to R(2+1)D and SlowFast video classifiers.

  • Use with optical flow data to capture motion information, as the accuracy of the classifier improves with optical flow data and video data.

  • Commonly used as a baseline when comparing video classifiers. Choose this classifier to obtain baseline results for your data set through transfer learning, and to train while using less GPU memory.

  • You can set MiniBatchSize to a value greater than for either R(2+1)D or SlowFast.

This table shows sample code you can use to create a video classifier using each of the listed video classifiers:

Video ClassifierSample Creation Code

SlowFast

inputSize = [112 112 64 3];
classes = ["wavingHello","clapping"];
sf = slowFastVideoClassifier("resnet50-3d",classes,InputSize=inputSize)

R(2+1)D

inputSize = [112 112 64 3];
classes = ["wavingHello","clapping"];
rd = r2plus1dVideoClassifier("resnet-3d-18",classes,InputSize=inputSize)

Inflated 3-D

inputSize = [112 112 64 3];
classes = ["wavingHello","clapping"];
i3d = inflated3dVideoClassifier("googlenet-video-flow",classes,InputSize=inputSize)

Train Video Classifier and Evaluate Results

To learn how to train and evaluate the results for the listed video classifiers, see these examples:

Classify Using Deep Learning Video Classifiers

To learn how to classify videos using a video classifier, see these examples:

See Also

Apps

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