How can I increase the size of an array that is already in the workspace with increments of 0.1?

2 vues (au cours des 30 derniers jours)
I am doing my dissertation for my masters and I ran into a problem, I am trying to compute the error between a smooth spline and the original line, however the arrays do not match in size, I am tryingg to increase the original array which has a size of 45x2, how can I create a new array from this smaller array with increment increase of 0.1
Thank you
  12 commentaires
Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE le 9 Juil 2021
yet another issue - now I lack one toolbox to continue
'distance' requires one of the following:
Antenna Toolbox
Automated Driving Toolbox
Communications Toolbox
Computer Vision Toolbox
Mapping Toolbox
Navigation Toolbox
Phased Array System Toolbox
Sensor Fusion and Tracking Toolbox
Error in Filipe>explore_successors (line 225)
successors(successor_count,3) = h+distance(x_cell,y_cell,s_x,s_y);%h
Error in Filipe (line 114)
successors=explore_successors(cell_x,cell_y,path_cost,x_target,y_target,in_valid,max_x,max_y);
Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE le 9 Juil 2021
easily solved by creating my own function - that wasn't too much complicated ....
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function d = mydistance(x1,y1,x2,y2)
d = sqrt((x1-x2).^2 + (y1-y2).^2);
end

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Réponse acceptée

Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE le 9 Juil 2021
so this is the status now :
1/ I believe I fixed a couple of issues at the end of the main code :
now both linear and spline curves have same dimensions and error can be computed :
% m=path(:,1);
% m1=x_start;
% m2=m1:0.1:m;
x1=[path(:,1);x_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
y1=[path(:,2);y_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
xq=(min(x1):0.1:max(x1))'; % correction here also
vq =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'spline'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
y2 =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'linear'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
plot(xq,y2,xq,vq,'b','LineWidth',2);
error_rms = sqrt(mean((y2-vq).^2))
error_rms = 0.0227
PLOT :
Full code :
clc
clearvars
max_x=50;
max_y=30;
environment=2*(ones(max_x,max_y));
j=0;
x_val = 1;
y_val = 1;
axis([1 max_x+1 1 max_y+1])
grid on;
grid minor
hold on;
n=0;
xval=48;
yval=28;
x_target=xval;
y_target=yval;
environment(xval,yval)=0;%Initialize environment with location of the target
plot(xval,yval,'gd');
text(xval+1,yval+.5,'Target')
% obstacle 1
for i = 9:14
for j = 24:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [9.5, 14.5, 14.5, 9.5];
y = [24.5, 24.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 2
for i = 17:23
for j = 21:25
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [17.5, 23.5, 23.5, 17.5];
y = [21.5, 21.5, 25.5, 25.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 3
for i = 27:33
for j = 20:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [27.5, 33.5, 33.5, 27.5];
y = [20.5, 20.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 4
for i = 28:33
for j = 11:18
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [28.5, 33.5, 33.5, 28.5];
y = [11.5, 11.5, 18.5, 18.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 5
for i = 37:41
for j = 11:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [37.5, 41.5, 41.5, 37.5];
y = [11.5, 11.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
%plot(19+.5,19+.5,'gd');
xval=3;
yval=20;
x_start=xval;%Starting Position
y_start=yval;%Starting Position
environment(xval,yval)=1;
plot(xval,yval,'bo');
valid=[]; % x | y | parent_x | parent_y | h(n) | g(n) | f(n)
in_valid=[]; % x | y
k=1;
for i=1:max_x
for j=1:max_y
if(environment(i,j) == -1) % check if obstacle
in_valid(k,1)=i;
in_valid(k,2)=j;
k=k+1;
end
end
end
in_valid_size=size(in_valid,1);
cell_x=x_start;
cell_y=y_start;
valid_size=1; % initialize size of valid_list
path_cost=0;
goal_distance=sqrt((cell_x-x_target)^2 + (cell_y-y_target)^2);
new_row=[1,8];
new_row(1,1)=1;
new_row(1,2)=cell_x;
new_row(1,3)=cell_y;
new_row(1,4)=cell_x; % parent x
new_row(1,5)=cell_y; % parent y
new_row(1,6)=path_cost;
new_row(1,7)=goal_distance;
new_row(1,8)=goal_distance;
valid(valid_size,:)=new_row; % initializing path with start position
valid(valid_size,1)=0;
in_valid_size=in_valid_size+1;
in_valid(in_valid_size,1)=cell_x; % make it invalid for further iterations
in_valid(in_valid_size,2)=cell_y;
path_not_found=1;
while((cell_x ~= x_target || cell_y ~= y_target) && path_not_found == 1)
% x | y | h | g | f
successors=explore_successors(cell_x,cell_y,path_cost,x_target,y_target,in_valid,max_x,max_y);
successors_size=size(successors,1);
for i=1:successors_size
flag=0;
for j=1:valid_size
if(successors(i,1) == valid(j,2) && successors(i,2) == valid(j,3) ) % if successor same as already existing cell inpath
% disp('valid')
% valid
% disp(' ');
valid(j,8)=min(valid(j,8),successors(i,5)); % check for minimum f and then pick it
if valid(j,8) == successors(i,5)
valid(j,4)=cell_x;% parent x
valid(j,5)=cell_y;% parent y
valid(j,6)=successors(i,3); % h
valid(j,7)=successors(i,4); % g
end;
flag=1;
end;
end;
if flag == 0 % if new cell with minimum f(n) then add to valid_path
valid_size= valid_size+1;
new_row=[1,8];
new_row(1,1)=1;
new_row(1,2)=successors(i,1);
new_row(1,3)=successors(i,2);
new_row(1,4)=cell_x; % parent x
new_row(1,5)=cell_y; % parent y
new_row(1,6)=successors(i,3); % h
new_row(1,7)=successors(i,4); % g
new_row(1,8)=successors(i,5); % f
valid(valid_size,:)= new_row;
end;
end;
index_min_cell = min_f(valid,valid_size,x_target,y_target);
if (index_min_cell ~= -1) % if index with minimum fn is obstacle no path exists
cell_x=valid(index_min_cell,2);
cell_y=valid(index_min_cell,3);
path_cost=valid(index_min_cell,6);
in_valid_size=in_valid_size+1; % put the cell in_valid so we dont come back on it again
in_valid(in_valid_size,1)=cell_x;
in_valid(in_valid_size,2)=cell_y;
valid(index_min_cell,1)=0;
else
path_not_found=0;
end;
end;
% backtracking to find the path
i=size(in_valid,1);
path=[];
xval=in_valid(i,1); % pick last in in_valid_list that must be target
yval=in_valid(i,2);
i=1;
path(i,1)=xval;
path(i,2)=yval;
i=i+1;
if ( (xval == x_target) && (yval == y_target))
inode=0;
parent_x=valid(find((valid(:,2) == xval) & (valid(:,3) == yval),1),4);
parent_y=valid(find((valid(:,2) == xval) & (valid(:,3) == yval),1),5);
while( parent_x ~= x_start || parent_y ~= y_start)
path(i,1) = parent_x;
path(i,2) = parent_y;
inode=find((valid(:,2) == parent_x) & (valid(:,3) == parent_y),1);
parent_x=valid(inode,4);
parent_y=valid(inode,5);
i=i+1;
end;
% plottin path
j=size(path,1);
p=plot(path(j,1),path(j,2),'bo');
j=j-1;
for i=j:-1:1
pause(.25);
set(p,'XData',path(i,1),'YData',path(i,2));
drawnow ;
end;
plot(path(:,1),path(:,2));
else
disp( 'Sorry, No path exists to the Target!');
end
% m=path(:,1);
% m1=x_start;
% m2=m1:0.1:m;
x1=[path(:,1);x_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
y1=[path(:,2);y_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
xq=(min(x1):0.1:max(x1))'; % correction here also
vq =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'spline'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
y2 =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'linear'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
plot(xq,y2,xq,vq,'b','LineWidth',2);
error_rms = sqrt(mean((y2-vq).^2))
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function d = mydistance(x1,y1,x2,y2)
d = sqrt((x1-x2).^2 + (y1-y2).^2);
end
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function successors=explore_successors(x_cell,y_cell,h,x_target,y_target,in_valid,max_x,max_y)
successors=[];
successor_count=1;
c2=size(in_valid,1);
for k= 1:-1:-1
for j= 1:-1:-1
if (k~=j || k~=0) %The node itself is not its successor
s_x = x_cell+k;
s_y = y_cell+j;
if( (s_x >0 && s_x <=max_x) && (s_y >0 && s_y <=max_y)) % successor within the matrix
flag=1;
for c1=1:c2
if(s_x == in_valid(c1,1) && s_y == in_valid(c1,2)) % successor not an obstacle or already visited
flag=0;
end;
end;
if (flag == 1)
successors(successor_count,1) = s_x;
successors(successor_count,2) = s_y;
% successors(successor_count,3) = h+distance(x_cell,y_cell,s_x,s_y);%h
successors(successor_count,3) = h+mydistance(x_cell,y_cell,s_x,s_y);%h
% successors(successor_count,4) = distance(x_target,y_target,s_x,s_y);%g
successors(successor_count,4) = mydistance(x_target,y_target,s_x,s_y);%g
successors(successor_count,5) = successors(successor_count,3)+successors(successor_count,4);%f
successor_count=successor_count+1;
end
end
end
end
end
end
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function index_of_min = min_f(valid,valid_len,x_target,y_target)
temp_array=[];
k=1;
flag=0;
goal_index=0;
for j=1:valid_len
if (valid(j,1)==1)
temp_array(k,:)=[valid(j,:) j];
if (valid(j,2)==x_target && valid(j,3)==y_target)
flag=1;
goal_index=j;
end;
k=k+1;
end;
end;
if flag == 1
index_of_min=goal_index;
end
if size(temp_array ~= 0)
[min_f,temp_min]=min(temp_array(:,8));
%min_f
index_of_min=temp_array(temp_min,9);
fprintf('Cell with minimum f found to be x : %d y : %d with f = %f',valid(index_of_min,2),valid(index_of_min,3),valid(index_of_min,8));
else
index_of_min=-1;
end;
end
  3 commentaires
Filipe Silva
Filipe Silva le 9 Juil 2021
It is perfect, thank you very much!
I also have to ask
function d = mydistance(x1,y1,x2,y2)
d = sqrt((x1-x2).^2 + (y1-y2).^2);
end
Its not the first time I see the function above that you have included, could I ask what it does?
Thank you
Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE le 12 Juil 2021
hello
this compute the euclidian distance between two points . Simply I had to write this function becasue in your code you are using a similar function from a toolbox I don't have. But as you can see that was easily solved.
bye

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Plus de réponses (2)

KSSV
KSSV le 9 Juil 2021
You need to use interp1.
Let A be your original array of size 45*2.
dx = 0.1 ;
x = A(:,1) ; y = A(:,2) ;
xi = min(x):dx:max(x) ;
yi = interp1(x,y,xi) ;
  1 commentaire
Filipe Silva
Filipe Silva le 9 Juil 2021
Hello, Can you check my last comment above? maybe might give an understanding of what I need, I already made the interpolation, but now I need to compute the error between original and interpolated, the code is there to help
Thank you

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Mathieu NOE
Mathieu NOE le 9 Juil 2021
so , maybe now I acn provide an answer....
had a couple of questions to myself - and tried to solve it this way :
now we have both the linear and spline path data the same size
y2 is basically the same linear y1 data but smapled at the new delta = 0.1 (using interp1 again but with "linear" argument;
below is the end of the main code that I changed quite a bit :
% m=path(:,1);
% m1=x_start;
% m2=m1:0.1:m;
x1=[path(:,1);x_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
y1=[path(:,2);y_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
xq=(min(x1):0.1:max(x1))'; % correction here also
vq =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'spline'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
y2 =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'linear'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
plot(xq,y2,xq,vq,'b','LineWidth',2);
error_rms = sqrt(mean((y2-vq).^2));
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function d = mydistance(x1,y1,x2,y2)
d = sqrt((x1-x2).^2 + (y1-y2).^2);
end
result is : error_rms = 0.0227
plot :
entire code below :
clc
clearvars
max_x=50;
max_y=30;
environment=2*(ones(max_x,max_y));
j=0;
x_val = 1;
y_val = 1;
axis([1 max_x+1 1 max_y+1])
grid on;
grid minor
hold on;
n=0;
xval=48;
yval=28;
x_target=xval;
y_target=yval;
environment(xval,yval)=0;%Initialize environment with location of the target
plot(xval,yval,'gd');
text(xval+1,yval+.5,'Target')
% obstacle 1
for i = 9:14
for j = 24:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [9.5, 14.5, 14.5, 9.5];
y = [24.5, 24.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 2
for i = 17:23
for j = 21:25
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [17.5, 23.5, 23.5, 17.5];
y = [21.5, 21.5, 25.5, 25.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 3
for i = 27:33
for j = 20:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [27.5, 33.5, 33.5, 27.5];
y = [20.5, 20.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 4
for i = 28:33
for j = 11:18
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [28.5, 33.5, 33.5, 28.5];
y = [11.5, 11.5, 18.5, 18.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
% obstacle 5
for i = 37:41
for j = 11:27
environment(i,j) = -1;
%plot(i+.5,j+.5,'rd');
end
end
x = [37.5, 41.5, 41.5, 37.5];
y = [11.5, 11.5, 27.5, 27.5];
fill(x,y,'k');
%plot(19+.5,19+.5,'gd');
xval=3;
yval=20;
x_start=xval;%Starting Position
y_start=yval;%Starting Position
environment(xval,yval)=1;
plot(xval,yval,'bo');
valid=[]; % x | y | parent_x | parent_y | h(n) | g(n) | f(n)
in_valid=[]; % x | y
k=1;
for i=1:max_x
for j=1:max_y
if(environment(i,j) == -1) % check if obstacle
in_valid(k,1)=i;
in_valid(k,2)=j;
k=k+1;
end
end
end
in_valid_size=size(in_valid,1);
cell_x=x_start;
cell_y=y_start;
valid_size=1; % initialize size of valid_list
path_cost=0;
goal_distance=sqrt((cell_x-x_target)^2 + (cell_y-y_target)^2);
new_row=[1,8];
new_row(1,1)=1;
new_row(1,2)=cell_x;
new_row(1,3)=cell_y;
new_row(1,4)=cell_x; % parent x
new_row(1,5)=cell_y; % parent y
new_row(1,6)=path_cost;
new_row(1,7)=goal_distance;
new_row(1,8)=goal_distance;
valid(valid_size,:)=new_row; % initializing path with start position
valid(valid_size,1)=0;
in_valid_size=in_valid_size+1;
in_valid(in_valid_size,1)=cell_x; % make it invalid for further iterations
in_valid(in_valid_size,2)=cell_y;
path_not_found=1;
while((cell_x ~= x_target || cell_y ~= y_target) && path_not_found == 1)
% x | y | h | g | f
successors=explore_successors(cell_x,cell_y,path_cost,x_target,y_target,in_valid,max_x,max_y);
successors_size=size(successors,1);
for i=1:successors_size
flag=0;
for j=1:valid_size
if(successors(i,1) == valid(j,2) && successors(i,2) == valid(j,3) ) % if successor same as already existing cell inpath
% disp('valid')
% valid
% disp(' ');
valid(j,8)=min(valid(j,8),successors(i,5)); % check for minimum f and then pick it
if valid(j,8) == successors(i,5)
valid(j,4)=cell_x;% parent x
valid(j,5)=cell_y;% parent y
valid(j,6)=successors(i,3); % h
valid(j,7)=successors(i,4); % g
end;
flag=1;
end;
end;
if flag == 0 % if new cell with minimum f(n) then add to valid_path
valid_size= valid_size+1;
new_row=[1,8];
new_row(1,1)=1;
new_row(1,2)=successors(i,1);
new_row(1,3)=successors(i,2);
new_row(1,4)=cell_x; % parent x
new_row(1,5)=cell_y; % parent y
new_row(1,6)=successors(i,3); % h
new_row(1,7)=successors(i,4); % g
new_row(1,8)=successors(i,5); % f
valid(valid_size,:)= new_row;
end;
end;
index_min_cell = min_f(valid,valid_size,x_target,y_target);
if (index_min_cell ~= -1) % if index with minimum fn is obstacle no path exists
cell_x=valid(index_min_cell,2);
cell_y=valid(index_min_cell,3);
path_cost=valid(index_min_cell,6);
in_valid_size=in_valid_size+1; % put the cell in_valid so we dont come back on it again
in_valid(in_valid_size,1)=cell_x;
in_valid(in_valid_size,2)=cell_y;
valid(index_min_cell,1)=0;
else
path_not_found=0;
end;
end;
% backtracking to find the path
i=size(in_valid,1);
path=[];
xval=in_valid(i,1); % pick last in in_valid_list that must be target
yval=in_valid(i,2);
i=1;
path(i,1)=xval;
path(i,2)=yval;
i=i+1;
if ( (xval == x_target) && (yval == y_target))
inode=0;
parent_x=valid(find((valid(:,2) == xval) & (valid(:,3) == yval),1),4);
parent_y=valid(find((valid(:,2) == xval) & (valid(:,3) == yval),1),5);
while( parent_x ~= x_start || parent_y ~= y_start)
path(i,1) = parent_x;
path(i,2) = parent_y;
inode=find((valid(:,2) == parent_x) & (valid(:,3) == parent_y),1);
parent_x=valid(inode,4);
parent_y=valid(inode,5);
i=i+1;
end;
% plottin path
j=size(path,1);
p=plot(path(j,1),path(j,2),'bo');
j=j-1;
for i=j:-1:1
pause(.25);
set(p,'XData',path(i,1),'YData',path(i,2));
drawnow ;
end;
plot(path(:,1),path(:,2));
else
disp( 'Sorry, No path exists to the Target!');
end
% m=path(:,1);
% m1=x_start;
% m2=m1:0.1:m;
x1=[path(:,1);x_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
y1=[path(:,2);y_start]; % seemed to me the start point is missing in "path" so added manually at the bottom
xq=(min(x1):0.1:max(x1))'; % correction here also
vq =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'spline'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
y2 =interp1(x1,y1,xq,'linear'); %see interp1() for other interpolation methods. Extrapolation is dangerous.
plot(xq,y2,xq,vq,'b','LineWidth',2);
error_rms = sqrt(mean((y2-vq).^2));
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function d = mydistance(x1,y1,x2,y2)
d = sqrt((x1-x2).^2 + (y1-y2).^2);
end
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function successors=explore_successors(x_cell,y_cell,h,x_target,y_target,in_valid,max_x,max_y)
successors=[];
successor_count=1;
c2=size(in_valid,1);
for k= 1:-1:-1
for j= 1:-1:-1
if (k~=j || k~=0) %The node itself is not its successor
s_x = x_cell+k;
s_y = y_cell+j;
if( (s_x >0 && s_x <=max_x) && (s_y >0 && s_y <=max_y)) % successor within the matrix
flag=1;
for c1=1:c2
if(s_x == in_valid(c1,1) && s_y == in_valid(c1,2)) % successor not an obstacle or already visited
flag=0;
end;
end;
if (flag == 1)
successors(successor_count,1) = s_x;
successors(successor_count,2) = s_y;
% successors(successor_count,3) = h+distance(x_cell,y_cell,s_x,s_y);%h
successors(successor_count,3) = h+mydistance(x_cell,y_cell,s_x,s_y);%h
% successors(successor_count,4) = distance(x_target,y_target,s_x,s_y);%g
successors(successor_count,4) = mydistance(x_target,y_target,s_x,s_y);%g
successors(successor_count,5) = successors(successor_count,3)+successors(successor_count,4);%f
successor_count=successor_count+1;
end
end
end
end
end
end
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function index_of_min = min_f(valid,valid_len,x_target,y_target)
temp_array=[];
k=1;
flag=0;
goal_index=0;
for j=1:valid_len
if (valid(j,1)==1)
temp_array(k,:)=[valid(j,:) j];
if (valid(j,2)==x_target && valid(j,3)==y_target)
flag=1;
goal_index=j;
end;
k=k+1;
end;
end;
if flag == 1
index_of_min=goal_index;
end
if size(temp_array ~= 0)
[min_f,temp_min]=min(temp_array(:,8));
%min_f
index_of_min=temp_array(temp_min,9);
fprintf('Cell with minimum f found to be x : %d y : %d with f = %f',valid(index_of_min,2),valid(index_of_min,3),valid(index_of_min,8));
else
index_of_min=-1;
end;
end

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