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additionLayer

Addition layer

Description

An addition layer adds inputs from multiple neural network layers element-wise.

Specify the number of inputs to the layer when you create it. The inputs to the layer have the names 'in1','in2',...,'inN', where N is the number of inputs. Use the input names when connecting or disconnecting the layer by using connectLayers or disconnectLayers. All inputs to an addition layer must have the same dimension.

Creation

Description

example

layer = additionLayer(numInputs) creates an addition layer that adds numInputs inputs element-wise. This function also sets the NumInputs property.

example

layer = additionLayer(numInputs,'Name',name) also sets the Name property.

Properties

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Number of inputs to the layer, specified as a positive integer greater than or equal to 2.

The inputs have the names 'in1','in2',...,'inN', where N is NumInputs. For example, if NumInputs is 3, then the inputs have the names 'in1','in2', and 'in3'. Use the input names when connecting or disconnecting the layer using the connectLayers or disconnectLayers functions.

Layer name, specified as a character vector or a string scalar. For Layer array input, the trainNetwork, assembleNetwork, layerGraph, and dlnetwork functions automatically assign names to layers with Name set to ''.

Data Types: char | string

Input names, specified as {'in1','in2',...,'inN'}, where N is the number of inputs of the layer.

Data Types: cell

This property is read-only.

Number of outputs of the layer. This layer has a single output only.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Output names of the layer. This layer has a single output only.

Data Types: cell

Examples

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Create an addition layer with two inputs and the name 'add_1'.

add = additionLayer(2,'Name','add_1')
add = 
  AdditionLayer with properties:

          Name: 'add_1'
     NumInputs: 2
    InputNames: {'in1'  'in2'}

Create two ReLU layers and connect them to the addition layer. The addition layer sums the outputs from the ReLU layers.

relu_1 = reluLayer('Name','relu_1');
relu_2 = reluLayer('Name','relu_2');

lgraph = layerGraph;
lgraph = addLayers(lgraph,relu_1);
lgraph = addLayers(lgraph,relu_2);
lgraph = addLayers(lgraph,add);

lgraph = connectLayers(lgraph,'relu_1','add_1/in1');
lgraph = connectLayers(lgraph,'relu_2','add_1/in2');

plot(lgraph)

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains an object of type graphplot.

Create a simple directed acyclic graph (DAG) network for deep learning. Train the network to classify images of digits. The simple network in this example consists of:

  • A main branch with layers connected sequentially.

  • A shortcut connection containing a single 1-by-1 convolutional layer. Shortcut connections enable the parameter gradients to flow more easily from the output layer to the earlier layers of the network.

Create the main branch of the network as a layer array. The addition layer sums multiple inputs element-wise. Specify the number of inputs for the addition layer to sum. To easily add connections later, specify names for the first ReLU layer and the addition layer.

layers = [
    imageInputLayer([28 28 1])
    
    convolution2dLayer(5,16,'Padding','same')
    batchNormalizationLayer
    reluLayer('Name','relu_1')
    
    convolution2dLayer(3,32,'Padding','same','Stride',2)
    batchNormalizationLayer
    reluLayer
    convolution2dLayer(3,32,'Padding','same')
    batchNormalizationLayer
    reluLayer
    
    additionLayer(2,'Name','add')
    
    averagePooling2dLayer(2,'Stride',2)
    fullyConnectedLayer(10)
    softmaxLayer
    classificationLayer];

Create a layer graph from the layer array. layerGraph connects all the layers in layers sequentially. Plot the layer graph.

lgraph = layerGraph(layers);
figure
plot(lgraph)

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains an object of type graphplot.

Create the 1-by-1 convolutional layer and add it to the layer graph. Specify the number of convolutional filters and the stride so that the activation size matches the activation size of the third ReLU layer. This arrangement enables the addition layer to add the outputs of the third ReLU layer and the 1-by-1 convolutional layer. To check that the layer is in the graph, plot the layer graph.

skipConv = convolution2dLayer(1,32,'Stride',2,'Name','skipConv');
lgraph = addLayers(lgraph,skipConv);
figure
plot(lgraph)

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains an object of type graphplot.

Create the shortcut connection from the 'relu_1' layer to the 'add' layer. Because you specified two as the number of inputs to the addition layer when you created it, the layer has two inputs named 'in1' and 'in2'. The third ReLU layer is already connected to the 'in1' input. Connect the 'relu_1' layer to the 'skipConv' layer and the 'skipConv' layer to the 'in2' input of the 'add' layer. The addition layer now sums the outputs of the third ReLU layer and the 'skipConv' layer. To check that the layers are connected correctly, plot the layer graph.

lgraph = connectLayers(lgraph,'relu_1','skipConv');
lgraph = connectLayers(lgraph,'skipConv','add/in2');
figure
plot(lgraph);

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains an object of type graphplot.

Load the training and validation data, which consists of 28-by-28 grayscale images of digits.

[XTrain,YTrain] = digitTrain4DArrayData;
[XValidation,YValidation] = digitTest4DArrayData;

Specify training options and train the network. trainNetwork validates the network using the validation data every ValidationFrequency iterations.

options = trainingOptions('sgdm', ...
    'MaxEpochs',8, ...
    'Shuffle','every-epoch', ...
    'ValidationData',{XValidation,YValidation}, ...
    'ValidationFrequency',30, ...
    'Verbose',false, ...
    'Plots','training-progress');
net = trainNetwork(XTrain,YTrain,lgraph,options);

Figure Training Progress (01-Sep-2021 08:31:32) contains 2 axes objects and another object of type uigridlayout. Axes object 1 contains 15 objects of type patch, text, line. Axes object 2 contains 15 objects of type patch, text, line.

Display the properties of the trained network. The network is a DAGNetwork object.

net
net = 
  DAGNetwork with properties:

         Layers: [16x1 nnet.cnn.layer.Layer]
    Connections: [16x2 table]
     InputNames: {'imageinput'}
    OutputNames: {'classoutput'}

Classify the validation images and calculate the accuracy. The network is very accurate.

YPredicted = classify(net,XValidation);
accuracy = mean(YPredicted == YValidation)
accuracy = 0.9934

Extended Capabilities

C/C++ Code Generation
Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™.

GPU Code Generation
Generate CUDA® code for NVIDIA® GPUs using GPU Coder™.

Introduced in R2017b