HDL Optimization Properties
Optimize speed or area of generated HDL code
With the HDL optimization properties, you can specify speed vs. area tradeoffs in the generated code.
Specify these properties as
namevalue arguments to the generatehdl
function.
Name
is the property name and Value
is the
corresponding value. You can specify several namevalue arguments in any order as
'Name1',Value1,...,'NameN',ValueN
.
For example:
fir = dsp.FIRFilter('Structure','Direct form antisymmetric'); generatehdl(fir,'InputDataType',numerictype(1,16,15),'AddPipelineRegisters','on');
Speed Optimization
AddPipelineRegisters
— Optimize clock rate with pipeline registers
'off'
(default)  'on'
Optimize clock rate with pipeline registers, specified as 'off'
or 'on'
. You cannot use this property with fully serial or cascade
serial filters. When you set this property to 'on'
, the coder adds
pipeline registers between filter computation stages. Although the registers add to the
overall filter latency, they provide significant improvements to the clock rate.
Filter Type  Location of Added Pipeline Register 

FIR transposed  Between coefficient multipliers and adders 
Direct form FIR, antisymmetric FIR, and symmetric FIR 
Between levels of a treebased final adder For an alternative treebased summation technique, see also the property

IIR  Between sections 
CIC  Between comb sections 
For more details, see Optimizing the Clock Rate with Pipeline Registers.
FIRAdderStyle
— Optimize clock rate with summation technique
'linear'
(default)  'tree'
 'pipelined'
Optimize clock rate with summation technique, specified as
'linear'
, 'tree'
, or
'pipelined'
. This property applies only to direct form FIR,
antisymmetric FIR, and symmetric FIR filters. You cannot use this property with fully
serial or cascade serial filters. When you set this property to
'tree'
, the coder creates a final adder that performs pairwise
addition on successive products that execute in parallel, rather than sequentially. When
you set this property to 'pipelined'
, the coder creates a treebased
final adder with pipeline registers between the levels of the tree.
For more details, see Optimizing Final Summation for FIR Filters.
Dependencies
This property applies only when the AddPipelineRegisters
property is set to
'off'
.
AddInputRegister
— Extra input register
'on'
(default)  'off'
Extra input register, specified as 'on'
or
'off'
. When this property is set to 'on'
, the
coder generates a signal named input_register
and includes a process
statement that controls the register. If the incurred latency is a concern, or if the
filter is incorporated into a code that has an existing input register, set this
property to 'off'
. For more details, see Specifying or Suppressing Registered Input and Output.
AddOutputRegister
— Extra output register
'on'
(default)  'off'
Extra output register, specified as 'on'
or
'off'
. When this property is set to 'on'
, the
coder generates a signal named output_register
and includes a process
statement that controls the register. If the incurred latency is a concern, or if the
filter is incorporated into a code that has an existing output register, set this
property to 'off'
. For more details, see Specifying or Suppressing Registered Input and Output.
MultiplierInputPipeline
— Number of pipeline stages on multiplier inputs
0
(default)  nonnegative integer
Number of pipeline stages on multiplier inputs, specified as a nonnegative integer. This property applies only to FIR filters. Multiplier pipelining can significantly increase clock rates. For more details, see Multiplier Input and Output Pipelining for FIR Filters.
Dependencies
To enable this property, set CoeffMultipliers
to
'multipliers'
.
MultiplierOutputPipeline
— Number of pipeline stages on multiplier outputs
0
(default)  nonnegative integer
Number of pipeline stages on multiplier outputs, specified as a nonnegative integer. This property applies only to FIR filters. Multiplier pipelining can significantly increase clock rates. For more details, see Multiplier Input and Output Pipelining for FIR Filters.
Dependencies
To enable this property, set CoeffMultipliers
to
'multipliers'
.
Area Optimization
OptimizeForHDL
— HDL code optimization
'off'
(default)  'on'
HDL code optimization, specified as 'off'
or
'on'
. By default, the coder generates the literal implementation of
the filter with numeric behaviour that matches the filter object exactly. This
implementation is not necessarily an optimal HDL implementation. When this property is
set to 'on'
, the coder reduces the area of the hardware
implementation and optimizes data types and quantization effects. For more details about
the underlying tradeoffs, see Optimize for HDL.
CoeffMultipliers
— Implementation of coefficient multiplications
'multiplier'
(default)  'csd'
 'factoredcsd'
Implementation of coefficient multiplications, specified as
'multiplier'
, 'csd'
, or
'factoredcsd'
. You cannot use this property with multirate or
serial filters.
'multiplier'
— The coder retains multiplier logic in the generated HDL code.'csd'
or'factoredcsd'
— The coder implements multiplication using canonical signed digit (CSD) logic. The CSD technique replaces multipliers with shift and add logic. This technique also minimizes the number of adders used for constant multiplication by representing binary numbers with a minimum count of nonzero digits. This optimization decreases the area used by the filter while maintaining or increasing clock speed.'factoredcsd'
— The coder implements multiplication using factored CSD logic. Factored CSD replaces multiplier operations with shift and add operations on prime factors of the coefficients. This option achieves a greater area reduction than CSD, at the cost of decreasing clock speed.
For more details, see CSD Optimizations for Coefficient Multipliers.
SerialPartition
— Partitions for serial filter architectures
1
(default)  effective filter length  [p1 p2 ... pN
]
 cell array of serial partitions
N
]Partitions for serial filter architectures, specified as one of the following:
1
— The coder generates a fully parallel architecture. This architecture is equivalent to a serial partition defined as a vector of ones of the size of the effective filter length.Effective filter length — The coder generates a fully serial architecture.
[p1 p2 ... p
— The coder generates a partly serial architecture withN
]N
partitions. The integers in the vector specify the length of each partition. The sum of the vector elements must be equal to the effective filter length. To reduce the area further, you can generate a cascadeserial architecture by enabling theReuseAccum
property. For some examples, see Generate Serial Partitions for FIR Filter.Cell array of serial partitions — The coder generates partitions for each filter stage in a cascaded filter. Specify the partitions for each filter stage as
1
, the effective filter length, or a vector of integers. The elements of each vector must sum to the effective filter length of the associated filter in the cascade. For an example, see Generate Serial Partitions of Cascaded Filter.When the serial partition of a filter stage is set to
1
, you can specify a LUT partition for that stage by using theDALUTPartition
andDARadix
properties. For more details, see Architecture Options for Cascaded Filters.
You cannot use this property with IIR SOS filters. To generate serial architectures
for IIR SOS filters, use the FoldingFactor
or
NumMultipliers
properties instead.
Use this table as a guide for calculating the effective filter length.
Alternatively, you can use the hdlfilterserialinfo
function to display the effective filter length and
possible partitions for a filter.
Filter Type  Effective Filter Length Calculation 

Direct form  FL = length(find(filt.Numerator~= 0)) 
Direct form symmetric  FL = ceil(length(find(filt.Numerator~=
0))/2) 
Direct form antisymmetric 
For more details, see Specifying Speed vs. Area Tradeoffs via generatehdl Properties.
For an overview of parallel and serial architectures and a list of filter types supported for each architecture, see Speed vs. Area Tradeoffs.
ReuseAccum
— Accumulator reuse for cascadeserial architecture
'off'
(default)  'on'
Accumulator reuse for cascadeserial architecture, specified as
'off'
or 'on'
. When this property is set to
'on'
, the coder groups filter taps into several serial partitions.
The accumulated output of each partition is cascaded to the accumulator of the previous
partition. The output of the partitions is therefore computed at the accumulator of the
first partition. This technique, called accumulator reuse, saves
chip area. If the property SerialPartition
is not
defined, the coder generates an optimal partition. For more details, see Specifying Speed vs. Area Tradeoffs via generatehdl Properties.
For an overview of parallel and serial architectures and a list of filter types supported for each architecture, see Speed vs. Area Tradeoffs.
DALUTPartition
— Lookup table partitions for distributed arithmetic
1
(default)  effective filter length  [p1 p2 ... pN
]
 {p1 p2 ... pN
; q1 q2 ...
qN
; ... }
 cell array of DALUT partitions
N
]N
; q1 q2 ...
qN
; ... }Lookup table (LUT) partitions for distributed arithmetic (DA), specified as one of the following:
1
— The coder generates a fully parallel architecture.Effective filter length — The coder generates a DA implementation without LUT partitioning.
[p1 p2 ... p
— The coder generates a DA implementation withN
]N
LUT partitions. The integers in the vector specify the size of each partition. The maximum size for an individual partition is 12. The sum of the vector elements must be equal to the effective filter length. For multirate filters, each polyphase subfilter uses the same LUT partitions. For an example, see Distributed Arithmetic for Single Rate Filters.{p1 p2 ... p
— The coder generates a DA implementation withN
; q1 q2 ... qN
; ... }N
unique LUT partitions for each polyphase subfilter of a multirate filter. Each row of the matrix specifies the partitions for one subfilter. The elements in each row must sum to the associated subfilter length,FLi
. For an example, see Distributed Arithmetic for Multirate Filters.Cell array of DALUT partitions — The coder generates DA implementation with different LUT partitions for each filter stage of the cascade. Specify the LUT partitions for each filter stage as
1
, the effective filter length, or a vector of integers. The elements of each vector must sum to the effective filter length of the associated filter in the cascade. For an example, see Distributed Arithmetic for Cascaded Filters.When the LUT partition of a filter stage is set to
1
, you can specify a serial partition for that stage by using theSerialPartition
property. For more details, see Architecture Options for Cascaded Filters.
Use this table as a guide for calculating the effective filter length.
Alternatively, you can use the hdlfilterdainfo
function to display the effective filter length, LUT
partitioning options, and possible DARadix
values for the
filter.
Filter Type  Effective Filter Length Calculation 

Direct form  FL = length(find(filt.Numerator~= 0)) 
Direct form symmetric  FL = ceil(length(find(filt.Numerator~=
0))/2) 
Direct form antisymmetric  
Multirate with uniform LUT partitions for each polyphase subfilter  FL = size(polyphase(filt),2) 
Multirate with unique LUT partitions for each polyphase subfilter  p = polyphase(filt) , where i is the index to
the i th row of the polyphase matrix of the filter. The
i th row of the matrix p represents the
i th subfilter. 
For more details, see Distributed Arithmetic for FIR Filters.
DARadix
— Number of bits processed simultaneously in distributed arithmetic
2
(default)  2^{N}
 {2^{N},2^{M},...}
Number of bits processed simultaneously in distributed arithmetic (DA), specified as
2
, 2^{N}
, or
{2^{N},2^{M},...}
where:
N > 0
mod(W,N) = 0
, whereW
is the input word size of the filter2^{N}
<=2^{W}
This property specifies a degree of parallelism in the DA architecture which can improve clock speed at the expense of area.
2^{1}
— The coder implements a fully serial DA architecture that processes 1 bit at a time.2^{N}
— The coder generates a partly serial DA architecture when1 < N < W
.2^{W}
— The coder generates a fully parallel DA architecture.{2^{N},2^{M},...}
— The coder generates a DA implementation with differentDARadix
values for each filter stage in a cascaded filter. For an example, see Distributed Arithmetic for Cascaded Filters.When the
DARadix
value of a filter stage is set to 2, you can specify a serial architecture for that stage by using theSerialPartition
property. For more details, see Architecture Options for Cascaded Filters.
For more details, see Distributed Arithmetic for FIR Filters.
FoldingFactor
— Folding factor for IIR filter
1
(default)  positive integer
Folding factor for IIR filter, specified as 1
or a positive
integer. Use this property to define a serial architecture for direct form I or direct
form II SOS filters. To reduce area in a serial architecture implementation, you can
share multipliers at the cost of latency. The folding factor specifies the factor by
which the clock rate increases in response to area optimization.
You can specify either the FoldingFactor
property or the
NumMultipliers
property,
but not both. If you do not specify either property, the coder generates a fully
parallel architecture.
For an example, see Generate Serial Architectures for IIR Filter. To obtain
information about the FoldingFactor
options and the corresponding
NumMultipliers
, call the hdlfilterserialinfo
function.
NumMultipliers
— Number of shared multipliers for IIR filter
positive integer
Number of shared multipliers for IIR filter, specified as a positive integer. Use this property to define a serial architecture for direct form I or direct form II SOS filters. Shared multipliers reduce area at the cost of an increased clock rate.
You can specify either the NumMultipliers
property or the
FoldingFactor
property,
but not both. If you do not specify either property, the coder generates a fully
parallel architecture.
For an example, see Generate Serial Architectures for IIR Filter. To obtain
information about the NumMultipliers
options and the corresponding
FoldingFactor
, call the hdlfilterserialinfo
function.
Tips
If you use the fdhdltool
function to generate HDL code, you
can set the corresponding properties in the Generate HDL dialog box.
Property  Location in Dialog Box 

Add input register  Global Settings tab > Ports tab 
Add output register  
Additional optimization properties  Filter Architecture tab See also:

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