Directivity of antenna or transducer element
element — Antenna or transducer element
Phased Array System Toolbox™
Antenna or transducer element, specified as a Phased Array System Toolbox System object.
Directivity describes the directionality of the radiation pattern of a sensor element or array of sensor elements.
Higher directivity is desired when you want to transmit more radiation in a specific direction. Directivity is the ratio of the transmitted radiant intensity in a specified direction to the radiant intensity transmitted by an isotropic radiator with the same total transmitted power
where Urad(θ,φ) is the radiant intensity of a transmitter in the direction (θ,φ) and Ptotal is the total power transmitted by an isotropic radiator. For a receiving element or array, directivity measures the sensitivity toward radiation arriving from a specific direction. The principle of reciprocity shows that the directivity of an element or array used for reception equals the directivity of the same element or array used for transmission. When converted to decibels, the directivity is denoted as dBi. For information on directivity, read the notes on Element Directivity and Array Directivity.
Azimuth and Elevation Angles
The azimuth angle of a vector is the angle between the x-axis and the orthogonal projection of the vector onto the xy-plane. The angle is positive from the x-axis toward the y-axis. Azimuth angles lie between –180 and 180 degrees. The elevation angle is the angle between the vector and its orthogonal projection onto the xy-plane. The angle is positive toward the positive z-axis from the xy-plane. By default, the boresight direction of an element or array is aligned with the positive x-axis. The boresight direction is the direction of the main lobe of an element or array.
The elevation angle is sometimes defined as the angle a vector makes with the positive z-axis. The MATLAB® and Phased Array System Toolbox products do not use this definition.
This figure illustrates the azimuth and elevation angles of a direction vector.