# Power Amplifier

Model power amplifier with memory

Libraries:
RF Blockset / Circuit Envelope / Elements

## Description

The Power Amplifier block models two-port power amplifiers. A memory polynomial expression derived from the Volterra series models the nonlinear relationship between input and output signals. This power amplifier includes memory effects because the output response depends on the current input signal and the input signal at previous times. These power amplifiers are useful when transmitting wideband or narrowband signals.

## Parameters

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Model type, specified as Memory polynomial, Generalized Hammerstein, Cross-Term Memory, or Cross-Term Hammerstein. The following table summarizes the characteristics of the different models:

ModelCharacterization DataType of CoefficientsIn-Band Spectral RegrowthOut-of-Band Harmonic Generation
Memory polynomial (default)Bandpass (I,Q)ComplexYesNo
Generalized HammersteinTrue passbandRealYesYes
Cross-Term MemoryBandpass (I,Q)ComplexYesNo
Cross-Term HammersteinTrue passbandRealYesYes

• Memory polynomial – This narrowband memory polynomial implementation (equation (19) of [1]) operates on the envelope of the input signal, does not generate new frequency components, and captures in-band spectral regrowth. Use this model to create a narrowband amplifier operating at high frequency.

The output signal, at any instant of time, is the sum of all the elements of the following complex matrix of dimensions :

$\left[\begin{array}{cccc}{C}_{11}{V}_{0}& {C}_{12}{V}_{0}|{V}_{0}|& \cdots & {C}_{1,\text{deg}}{V}_{0}{|{V}_{0}|}^{\text{deg}-1}\\ {C}_{21}{V}_{1}& {C}_{22}{V}_{1}|{V}_{1}|& \cdots & {C}_{2,\text{deg}}{V}_{1}{|{V}_{1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\\ ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ {C}_{\text{mem},1}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {C}_{\text{mem},2}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|& \cdots & {C}_{\text{mem},\text{deg}}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\end{array}\right].$

In the matrix, the number of rows equals the number of memory terms, and the number of columns equals the degree of the nonlinearity. The signal subscript represents amount of delay.

• Generalized Hammerstein – This wideband memory polynomial implementation (equation (18) of [1]) operates on the envelope of the input signal, generates frequency components that are integral multiples of carrier frequencies, and captures in-band spectral regrowth. Increasing the degree of the nonlinearity increases the number of out-of-band frequencies generated. Use this model to create wideband amplifiers operating at low frequency.

The output signal, at any instant of time, is the sum of all the elements of the following real matrix of dimensions :

$\left[\begin{array}{cccc}{C}_{11}{V}_{0}& {C}_{12}{V}_{0}^{2}& \cdots & {C}_{1,\text{deg}}{V}_{0}^{\text{deg}}\\ {C}_{21}{V}_{1}& {C}_{22}{V}_{1}^{2}& \cdots & {C}_{2,\text{deg}}{V}_{1}^{\text{deg}}\\ ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ {C}_{\text{mem},1}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {C}_{\text{mem},2}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{2}& \cdots & {C}_{\text{mem},\text{deg}}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{\mathrm{deg}}\end{array}\right].$

In the matrix, the number of rows equals the number of memory terms, and the number of columns equals the degree of the nonlinearity. The signal subscript represents amount of delay.

• Cross-Term Memory – This narrowband memory polynomial implementation (equation (23) of [1]) operates on the envelope of the input signal, does not generate new frequency components, and captures in-band spectral regrowth. Use this model to create a narrowband amplifier operating at high frequency. The model includes leading and lagging memory terms and provides a generalized implementation of the memory polynomial model.

The output signal, at any instant of time, is the sum of all the elements of a matrix specified by the element-by-element product

C .* MCTM,

where C is a complex coefficient matrix of dimensions and

$\begin{array}{c}{M}_{\text{CTM}}=\left[\begin{array}{c}{V}_{0}\\ {V}_{1}\\ ⋮\\ {V}_{\text{mem}-1}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{cccccccccccc}1& |{V}_{0}|& |{V}_{1}|& \cdots & |{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|& {|{V}_{0}|}^{2}& \cdots & {|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{2}& \cdots & {|{V}_{0}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\end{array}\right]\\ =\left[\begin{array}{cccccccccccc}{V}_{0}& {V}_{0}|{V}_{0}|& {V}_{0}|{V}_{1}|& \cdots & {V}_{0}|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|& {V}_{0}{|{V}_{0}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{|{V}_{0}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\\ {V}_{1}& {V}_{1}|{V}_{0}|& {V}_{1}|{V}_{1}|& \cdots & {V}_{1}|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|& {V}_{1}{|{V}_{0}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{|{V}_{0}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\\ ⋮& ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ {V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}|{V}_{0}|& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}|{V}_{1}|& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{|{V}_{0}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{|{V}_{0}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{|{V}_{\text{mem}-1}|}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\end{array}\right].\end{array}$

In the matrix, the number of rows equals the number of memory terms, and the number of columns is proportional to the degree of the nonlinearity and the number of memory terms. The signal subscript represents amount of delay. The additional columns that do not appear in the Memory polynomial model represent the cross terms.

• Cross-Term Hammerstein – This wideband memory polynomial implementation operates on the envelope of the input signal, generates frequency components that are integral multiples of carrier frequencies, and captures in-band spectral regrowth. Increasing the order of the nonlinearity increases the number of out-of-band frequencies generated. Use this model to create wideband amplifiers operating at low frequency.

The output signal, at any instant of time, is the sum of all the elements of a matrix specified by the element-by-element product

C .* MCTH,

where C is a complex coefficient matrix of dimensions and

$\begin{array}{c}{M}_{\text{CTH}}=\left[\begin{array}{c}{V}_{0}\\ {V}_{1}\\ ⋮\\ {V}_{\text{mem}-1}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{cccccccccccc}1& {V}_{0}& {V}_{1}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {V}_{0}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{0}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\end{array}\right]\\ =\left[\begin{array}{cccccccccccc}{V}_{0}& {V}_{0}^{2}& {V}_{0}{V}_{1}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {V}_{0}^{3}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{0}^{\mathrm{deg}}& \cdots & {V}_{0}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\\ {V}_{1}& {V}_{1}{V}_{0}& {V}_{1}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {V}_{1}{V}_{0}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{V}_{0}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{1}{V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}\\ ⋮& ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& \ddots & ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ {V}_{\text{mem}-1}& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{V}_{0}& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{V}_{1}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{2}& {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{V}_{0}^{2}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{3}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}{V}_{0}^{\mathrm{deg}-1}& \cdots & {V}_{\text{mem}-1}^{\mathrm{deg}}\end{array}\right].\end{array}$

In the matrix, the number of rows equals the number of memory terms, and the number of columns is proportional to the degree of the nonlinearity and the number of memory terms. The signal subscript represents amount of delay. The additional columns that do not appear in the Generalized Hammerstein model represent the cross terms.

Coefficient matrix, specified as a complex matrix for the Memory polynomial and Cross-Term Memory models and as a real matrix for the Generalized Hammerstein and Cross-Term Hammerstein models.

• For the Memory polynomial and Cross-Term Memory models, you can identify the complex coefficient matrix based on the measured complex (I,Q) output-vs.-input amplifier characteristic. As an example, see the helper function in Coefficient Matrix Computation.

• For the Generalized Hammerstein and Cross-Term Hammerstein models, you can identify the real coefficient matrix based on the measured real passband output-vs.-input amplifier characteristic.

The size of the matrix depends on the number of delays and the degree of the system nonlinearity.

• For the Memory polynomial and Generalized Hammerstein models, the matrix has dimensions .

• For the Cross-Term Memory and Cross-Term Hammerstein models, the matrix has dimensions .

Sample interval of the input-output data, which the block uses to define the coefficient matrix, specified as a real positive scalar.

The Coefficient Sample Time (s) parameter has been renamed to Measured interval of PA data (s). (since R2023b)

Note

To improve model accuracy, specify the Measured interval of PA data (s) parameter to be equal to or larger than the Step size parameter in the Configuration block.

Input resistance, specified as a real positive scalar.

Output resistance, specified as a real positive scalar.

Select this parameter to ground and hide the negative terminals. Clear the parameter to expose the negative terminals. By exposing these terminals, you can connect them to other parts of your model.

## Tips

• To avoid the nonlinear power amplifier to operate in an undesirable region, the Simulink® input signal must be scaled. This happens when a nonlinear power amplifier in the RF domain is used to amplify a Simulink signal.

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## References

[1] Morgan, Dennis R., Zhengxiang Ma, Jaehyeong Kim, Michael G. Zierdt, and John Pastalan. "A Generalized Memory Polynomial Model for Digital Predistortion of Power Amplifiers." IEEE® Transactions on Signal Processing. Vol. 54, No. 10, October 2006, pp. 3852–3860.

[2] Gan, Li, and Emad Abd-Elrady. "Digital Predistortion of Memory Polynomial Systems using Direct and Indirect Learning Architectures." In Proceedings of the Eleventh IASTED International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (SIP) (F. Cruz-Roldán and N. B. Smith, eds.), No. 654-802. Calgary, AB: ACTA Press, 2009.

## Version History

Introduced in R2017b

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