I found out you can make your table a tall table, which provides a way to work with large amounts of data. You use the tall function and pass in your table. You can write your table to a folder of .mat files using the write function. You then create a datastore and convert it to a tall table. Finally, you can get a subset of the tall table and use the gather function to get the results.
There is an example in the MATLAB documentation: https://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/ref/matlab.io.datastore.talldatastore.html