Font style on the current axes can be set by set(gca, 'FontName', <name of supported font>).
Should one assume that a Matlab installation on a system supports all of the local fonts?
How does one list the set of fonts supported by a Matlab installation?
In a use case envisioned by the poster, the set expression for font name would be wrapped in a conditional which validates whether the desired font is supported. This is why it would be helpful to list all supported fonts, or call a command which returns a data structure containing the supported set.
Any advice is greatly appreciated.